He considered this essence to be an incorporeal, eternal occupant of our being. Plato said that even after death, the soul exists and is able to think. He believed that as bodies die, the soul is continually reborn metempsychosis in subsequent bodies. However, Aristotle believed that only one part of the soul was immortal, namely the intellect logos. The Platonic soul consists of three parts: .
Plato also compares the three parts of the soul or psyche to a societal caste system. According to Plato's theory, the three-part soul is essentially the same thing as a state's class system because, to function well, each part must contribute so that the whole functions well.
Logos keeps the other functions of the soul regulated. In Aristotle's view, the primary activity, or full actualization, of a living thing constitutes its soul.
For example, the full actualization of an eye, as an independent organism, is to see its purpose or final cause. This organization between form and matter is necessary for any activity, or functionality, to be possible in a natural being.
Using an artifact non-natural being as an example, a house is a building for human habituation, but for a house to be actualized requires the material wood, nails, bricks, etc. However, this does not imply that a house has a soul. In regards to artifacts, the source of motion that is required for their full actualization is outside of themselves for example, a builder builds a house. In natural beings, this source of motion is contained within the being itself.
The various faculties of the soulsuch as nutrition, movement peculiar to animalsreason peculiar to humanssensation special, common, and incidental and so forth, when exercised, constitute the "second" actuality, or fulfillment, of the capacity to be alive.
For example, someone who falls asleep, as opposed to someone who falls dead, can wake up and live their life, while the latter can no longer do so. Aristotle's discussion of the soul is in his work, De Anima On the Soul. Although mostly seen as opposing Plato in regard to the immortality of the soul, a controversy can be found in relation to the fifth chapter of the third book: in this text both interpretations can be argued for, soul as a whole can be deemed mortal, and a part called "active intellect" or "active mind" is immortal and eternal.
Following Aristotle, Avicenna Ibn Sina and Ibn al-Nafisan Arab physician, further elaborated upon the Aristotelian understanding of the soul and developed their own theories on the soul.
They both made a distinction between the soul and the spirit, and the Avicennian doctrine on the nature of the soul was influential among the Scholastics. Some of Avicenna's views on the soul include the idea that the immortality of the soul is a consequence of its nature, and not a purpose for it to fulfill. In his theory of "The Ten Intellects", he viewed the human soul as the tenth and final intellect.
While he was imprisoned, Avicenna wrote his famous " Floating man " thought experiment to demonstrate human self-awareness and the substantial nature of the soul. He argues that in this scenario one would still have self-consciousness. He thus concludes that the Some People Said - Various - The Beat Era - Belgien Vol. 1 (CD) of the self is not logically dependent on any physical thingand that the soul should not be seen in relative termsbut as a primary given, a substance.
Avicenna generally Some People Said - Various - The Beat Era - Belgien Vol. 1 (CD) Aristotle's idea of the soul originating from the heartwhereas Ibn al-Nafis rejected this idea and instead argued that the soul "is related to the entirety and not to one or a few organs ". He further criticized Aristotle's idea whereby every unique soul requires the existence of a unique source, in this case the heart. Al-Nafis concluded that "the soul is related primarily neither to the spirit nor to any organ, but rather to the entire matter whose temperament is prepared to receive that soul," and he defined the soul as nothing other than "what a human indicates by saying " I ".
Following Aristotle whom he referred to as "the Philosopher" and Avicenna, Thomas Aquinas —74 understood the soul to be the first actuality of the living body. Consequent to this, he distinguished three orders of life: plants, which feed and grow; animals, which add sensation to the operations of plants; and humans, which add intellect to the operations of animals. Concerning the human soul, his epistemological theory required that, since the knower becomes what he knows, the soul is definitely not corporeal—if it is corporeal when it knows what some corporeal thing is, that thing would come to be within it.
Furthermore, since the rational soul of human beings is a subsistent form and not something made of matter and form, it cannot be destroyed in any natural process. In his discussions of rational psychology, Immanuel Kant — identified the soul as the "I" in the strictest sense, and argued that the existence of inner experience can neither be proved nor disproved. We cannot prove a priori the immateriality of the soul, but rather only so much: that all properties and actions of the soul cannot be recognized from materiality.
It is from the "I", or soul, that Kant proposes transcendental rationalization, but cautions that such rationalization can only determine the limits of knowledge if it is to remain practical.
Psychologist James Hillman's archetypal psychology is an attempt to restore the concept of the soul, which Hillman viewed as the "self-sustaining and imagining substrate" upon which consciousness rests.
Hillman described the soul as that "which makes meaning possible, [deepens] events into experiences, is communicated in love, and has a religious concern", as well as "a special relation with death". Many modern scientists, such as Julien Musolino, hold that the mind is merely a complex machine that operates on the same physical laws as all other objects in the universe.
The search for the soul, however, is seen to have been instrumental in driving the understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the human body, particularly in the fields of cardiovascular and neurology.
Neuroscience as an interdisciplinary field, and its branch of cognitive neuroscience particularly, operates under the ontological assumption of physicalism. In other words, it assumes—in order to perform its science—that only the fundamental phenomena studied by physics exist. Thus, neuroscience seeks to understand mental phenomena within the framework according to which human thought and behavior are caused solely by physical processes taking place inside the brain, and it operates by the way of reductionism by seeking an explanation for the mind in terms of brain activity.
To study the mind in terms of the brain several methods of functional neuroimaging are used to study the neuroanatomical correlates of various cognitive processes that constitute the mind. The evidence from brain imaging indicates that all processes of the mind have physical correlates in brain function. Identification of causationand of necessary and sufficient conditions requires explicit experimental manipulation of that activity.
If manipulation of brain activity changes consciousness, then a causal role for that brain activity can be inferred. In a loss-of-function also called "necessity" experiment, a part of the nervous system is diminished or removed in an attempt to determine if it is necessary for a certain process to occur, and in a gain-of-function also called "sufficiency" experiment, an aspect of the nervous system is increased relative to normal.
In addition, neuroscientists are also investigating how the mind develops with the development of the brain. Physicist Sean M. Carroll has written that the idea of a soul is incompatible with quantum field theory QFT. He writes that for a soul to exist: "Not only is new physics required, but dramatically new physics. Within QFT, there can't be a new collection of 'spirit particles' and 'spirit forces' that interact with our regular atoms, because we would have detected them in existing experiments.
Some parapsychologists have attempted to establish, by scientific experiment, whether a soul separate from the brain exists, as is more commonly defined in religion rather than as a synonym of psyche or mind. Milbourne Christopher and Mary Roach have argued that none of the attempts by parapsychologists have yet succeeded.
In Duncan MacDougall conducted an experiment in which he made weight measurements of patients as they died. He claimed that there was weight loss of varying amounts at the time of death; he concluded the soul weighed 21 grams, based on measurements of a single patient and discarding conflicting results. Park has written that MacDougall's experiments "are not regarded today as having any scientific merit" and the psychologist Bruce Hood wrote that "because the weight loss was not reliable or replicable, his findings were unscientific.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the capital of South Korea, see Seoul. For other uses, see Soul disambiguation. Incorporeal essence of a living being. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Spirit. See also: Soul in the BibleChristian mortalismImmortality of the soulChristian conditionalismand Annihilationism.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. July Further information: Jain philosophy and Jainism and non-creationism. This Section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this Section by adding secondary or tertiary sources.
Main article: Zoroastrianism. Main article: Plato's tripartite theory of soul. Further information: Aristotle's biology.
Main article: Philosophy of mind. Retrieved 1 December Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 14 December Retrieved 12 November The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 18 November In a mountainous kingdom in what is now southeastern Turkey, there lived in the eighth century B. The words instructed mourners to commemorate his life and afterlife with feasts "for my soul that is in this stele.
Retrieved 23 February Oxford: George Ronald. Archived from the original on 3 March A Short History of Buddhism. Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 13 November Archived from the original on 9 October Archived from the original on 21 November Archived from the original on 30 December Alan WallaceContemplative Science. University of Columbia Press,p. Doctrine and Covenants.
Archived from the original on 29 June What nonsense". The Times. Archived from the original on 18 September Archived from the original on 28 November In St.
Paul we find a more technical phraseology employed with great consistency. Psyche is now appropriated to the purely natural life; pneuma to the life of supernatural religion, the principle of which is the Holy Spirit, dwelling and operating in the heart. The opposition of flesh and spirit is accentuated afresh Romansetc.
This Pauline system, presented to a world already prepossessed in favour of a quasi-Platonic Dualism, occasioned one of the earliest widespread forms of error among Christian writers — the doctrine of the Trichotomy. According to this, man, perfect man teleios consists of three parts: body, soul, spirit soma, psyche, pneuma. Archived from the original on 16 November The Watchtower : 3—5. Archived from the original on 31 December Retrieved 7 April Dao Companion to Japanese Confucian Philosophy.
Dao Companions to Chinese Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer. Retrieved 27 April The Philosophy of the Upanishads. Cosimo Classics 1 June Thus we can see in the Upanishads, a tendency towards a convergence of microcosm and macrocosm, culminating in the equating of atman with Brahman".
Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence. Plants as Persons: A Philosophical Botany. State University of New York Press. Outlines of Jainism.
Cambridge University Press. Buddhism and Jainism. Encyclopedia of Indian Religions. Springer Netherlands. Yoga and the Hindu Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass. Brahman: A Comparative Theology.
The International Medical Journal. Emil Homerin In Jane Dammen McAuliffe ed. Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, Volume 5.
Islam in Perspective revised ed. Author House. Retrieved 15 July — via Google Books. Aspects of Jaina religion 3 ed. Bharatiya Jnanpith. All Famous Quotes. Archived from the original on 21 September See Leibowitz, Aryeh Feldheim Publishers. Reb Chaim HaQoton. Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 11 July Judaism Archived from the original on 22 August Archived from the original on 8 March Revisiting Usog, Pasma, Kulam.
University of the Philippines Press. In James J. Fox ed. Expressions of Austronesian Thought and Emotions. ANU Press. Inculturation of Filipino-Chinese Culture Mentality. Interreligious and Intercultural Investigations. Editrice Pontifica Universita Gregoriana. Austronesian Comparative Dictionary. Retrieved 7 July Mercado Philippine Studies. Salazar Asian Studies. Archived from the original on 5 November Citation: God had fashioned his Adam's soul with particular care.
She is the image of God, and as God fills the world, so the soul fills the human body; as God sees all things, and is seen by none, so the soul sees, but cannot be seen; as God guides the world, so the soul guides the body; as God in His holiness is pure, so is the soul; and as God dwells in secret, so doth the soul.
Monash University : Theosophy: an introduction to the spiritual processes in human life and in the cosmos 3rd ed. Hudson, NY: Anthroposophic Press. The call of soul. Life is real only then, when 'I am'. Zalta, Edward N. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Summer ed. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Cornford, Greek Religious Thoughtp. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. On The Soul. Nicomachean Ethics, Some People Said - Various - The Beat Era - Belgien Vol.
1 (CD). Book I, Chapter 7, pp. Book III, Chapter 1, pp. Book III, Chapter 5, pp. Aristotle's Psychology. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. It all just came together. For the next 12 years, Blue Note evolved, varied, changed, and morphed, but that tradition of rehearsals, careful planning, attractive compositions, great packaging, and great sound became the Blue Note formula from that point on.
They heard one song in a Harlem club and signed him on the spot. They were just flabbergasted by this guy. He was amazing. He created a whole industry, a whole soul industry that had piano players switching to the organ. Hammond, the organ company, was cranking out B-3s like they were trumpets.
It was unbelievable how quickly that whole thing exploded. That was an important part of keeping Blue Note alive, too. The British Invasion was pretty irrelevant to the jazz scene. It had an air about it. Everything is perfect. It fits. What kind of legacy would he have left during those years as opposed to what he did for Prestige?
Who knows? Part of it was the planning and the rehearsal, and part of it was the fact that Alfred was encouraging people to do something new, something great. Cuscuna: Theaters have repertory companies where people begin in small roles and grow into lead actors. Painters mentor other painters. At Blue Note, there was a bond that was created, a connection that stayed with these musicians. They all remained friends.
I got a job at the Coronet in Brooklyn. You want to come and play? It was this constant seeding of tributaries into the main river, the main river being the recording scene.
There was no crossover there. At the time, I was doing jazz radio in Philadelphia on the University of Pennsylvania station. Little by little, I was getting turned on to album rock, progressive rock. Actually, I remember a radio show that Leonard Feather did where he was extolling the virtues of Jefferson Airplane and other bands.
We were really getting interested in a lot of these album rock groups, groups that were playing interesting stuff. If you wanted to hear what they did, you had to listen to the entire album. A lot of us realized that this progressive rock would never get heard on top 40 radio, but it was really interesting, so we brought album cuts to FM radio.
Little by little, that blossomed. This was a time when the only rock and roll on the air was essentially top If it was Otis Redding playing, you were lucky. Even I got sidetracked into that, for quite a few years.
That sucked away part of the jazz audience. This is from a New York perspective. That scared a lot of white kids away from the music. It also alienated a lot of middle-aged, black, urban-area people, both attitudinally and musically.
So some jazz players retreated back to organ soul records, and the white audience was getting sucked into the album rock thing. This is all simplification, but the general trend was that everyone was being pulled into soul jazz or FM rock or avant-garde. The great art of hard bop was left to languish.
This was all going on at the same time. Wynton Marsalis was an anomaly. We found Kenny Garrett and Geri Allen, but we were really shaking the bushes to find them. Cuscuna: Blue Note had the misfortune of having one hit right after another. Neither one was a record that anyone knew was going to Some People Said - Various - The Beat Era - Belgien Vol.
1 (CD) a hit. In those days, independent labels had a different distributor in each territory, regional distributors. They had maybe 12 or 13 distributors throughout the country. You had to ship product 60 days before you get paid. A lot of distributors never paid on time. Once you had a hit, they never paid you until you had another hit. Once that faded away, they kept ordering but stopped paying. Blue Note was drawn along. They had these meetings and they had these forms, they had all this pointless stuff.
Blue Note had become Some People Said - Various - The Beat Era - Belgien Vol. 1 (CD) of a larger bureaucratic company. They had a sales director. They had an art department. Everything got out of their control except for the music, recording the music. Cuscuna: The day I signed the deal and went into the vault was probably the greatest and worst day of my life.
Charlie Lourie was with me. The Blue Note vault was on the second floor of this building down the block from the studio. We walked in and there were all these Scotch 3M boxes of tape on shelf after shelf, row after row after row. I opened it up, and there was no paper inside. There was nothing written on the back besides the artist name, the date, and the reel number. My dream had come true, and now it was my worst nightmare. So I had to do things in a very convoluted way.
I would take the reels down the street and listen to them. But it was kind of fun and exciting to do the detective work myself. I think I probably got more out of it by doing it that way, the hard way, and then getting confirmation later. There were a few people who were almost frightening, like Andrew Hill.
Later on when I was able to corroborate his memory, I found out that he only had one bass player wrong. Everything else was letter perfect. Thelonious Monk at his May 30,sextet session. He was the first great find by Blue Note in There was also Lee Morgan. At the time, he was strung out, so he was always looking for advances and an excuse to make a record.
Half the stuff that was unreleased was better than the stuff that was released. The other junkie at the label at the time was Grant Green. He recorded an amazing amount of unreleased material that was not only truly magnificent, but different from what was coming out at the time.
His records tended to be concept-driven—an album of Western songs or an album of spirituals. These albums really shed a new light on Grant Green as a player. They added to the historical perspective of who Grant Green was.
Cuscuna: Bruce grew up loving Blue Note. When the opportunity came for him to come to EMI and revitalize the label, he jumped at the chance. But Bruce had a very clear idea of what he wanted to do with Blue Note.
Then he wanted me to do 20 reissues. Then he wanted me to stay and produce. So we sat down and he laid out three areas to address. The first was recording Kenny Burrell, Freddie Hubbard, Tony Williams, Stanley Turrentine—any of the great people that were still around and still playing in the classic Blue Note sound. The second one was to find some young people to carry on the tradition. We both knew that we would have to really start beating the bushes and going to clubs and talking to musicians to find the young players.
The only way I know of to have hits is to find unique artists who by their uniqueness and attractiveness will cross over. He thought that all of this would be an extension of the integrity of Blue Note Records, and I agreed. We did disagree about other things. I wanted to sign Bonnie Raitt and James Taylor and people like that. I thought, on the other hand, Blue Note should represent adult music and quality, not just the jazz tradition.
At first we had a lot of younger groundbreaking players like Jason Moran and Greg Osby, a lot of great straight-ahead players. We did the best job we could. But I was absolutely thrilled when Bruce signed Norah Jones. Some People Said - Various - The Beat Era - Belgien Vol. 1 (CD) was a jazz artist, playing piano and singing standards with an acoustic bass and a jazz drummer.
When her demos started to show more pop and country directions, Bruce, with his whole concern about the integrity of Blue Note, offered to sign her to the Manhattan label, which was more pop-oriented.
I want to be on Blue Note. I love that label. Elvin Jones contributed to scores of great Blue Note sessions before signing with the label in Once her record came out on Blue Note, it opened up another avenue for all of us. First of all, we thought it might sellcopies. It was very bizarre, one of those really bizarre things to watch happen. After that, Bruce began to relax his jazz-only stance. Van Morrison came into the fold and wanted to be on Blue Note, and Bruce said fine. I want to go down there.
I want to make a deal, but I want to do it for Blue Note. Then he signed Anita Baker. We were, for awhile, chasing James Taylor. There were all these other artists that were going to be on Blue Note.
At the time, five years ago, I felt that made it more self-sustaining. Cuscuna: Two reasons. Ambrose brought in a tape that he had done live at the Jazz Standard, where the band included Gerald Clayton on piano and Walter Smith, Jr.
We went down to hear him at a club, and it was just breathtaking. So he signed, and Ravi Coltrane has been signed. Blue Note captures great contemporary jazz. The other role for Blue Note is, of course, the canon of great music, which serves the fans but also functions as a teaching course, as a curriculum for young players learning the music. To me, it was very important that young kids—16, 17, 18, even 14—would have access to all this great music.
Great records create important teaching guides and standards for up-and-coming musicians. Cuscuna: Several. The record collector is one. The academic completist junkie is another, which would be a record collector taken to the extreme. Is he like Sonny Stitt or is he different? Cuscuna: My friend Larry Cohn is one of them. There was no thought involved in this.
Blue Note album covers courtesy Blue Note Records. This was a fascinating interview. I always enjoy reading something from Michael. We learn behind the scenes stuff that enriches our listening experience with the jazz music we love. I bought his reissues of Impulse stuff on 2-fers. I bought his Arista stuff. I bought lots of BlueNote reissues and,when things are good,a couple of Mosaic boxes actually,Mosaics, while still in print, are a great value.
Fantastic interview. A large portion of the Blue Note audience has absolutely no desire to acquire this music via digital downloads.
Hopefully the pendulum will swing the other way once the world understands the inherent inferiority of downloads. This interview was very informative and fun to read. Does anyone have a suggestion as to what to do with them? This article was graet. Great writting and great stories of great jazz musicians. But it seems to me that one great jazz icon was left out,Duke Pearson.
Pearson should have been included in this article and all others, as he played a major role in directing Blue Notes Hard -Bop sessions after the demise of another great jazz icon Ike Quebeck. I always read articles in magazines,news papers etc,that tells the story of Blue Notes History. And what I have found in all of them is that,they always mention Pearson in such a small way.
Its a shame for Blue Note and the powers that be, never really give Pearson his props! Pearson either arranged,produced,or wrote tunes for some of the greatest Blue Note sessions ever. As he wrote Idle Moments just for that date. And bring him into the light where he should be. His tenure at Blue Note may have not been long. But his talent,writing,producing and arranging skills deserves more. What a fascinating article! Count me as another collector who wants a physical product in his hands, not mp3s.
This interview has already given it a headstart! This article is great! So much great music, history and background. I am speechless. Some of the most interesting and informative first hand information given here by the best person who has traveled the full true road of Blue Note Records. The rest is history. Over time I have become another huge fan and a lover of this unsurpassed jazz label. In years to come, living later both in England and here in the U.
Over the years there have also been a few magic moments during some most memorable live shows of Art Blakey, Jimmy Smith, Thelonious Monk, Herbie Hancock, etc. They are all Greats. Bird did some licks for blue note back in the day! I have read and still do anything on blue note.
I grew up on BlueNote at the age of Eight….
But he said, “I just remember loving the sound of the beat of the drums.” Art Blakey, the heartbeat of Blue Note, leading the Jazz Messengers at the Cork ‘N Bib on Long Island, October His mother had some sort of commercial jazz 78s around the house, and he started listening to those. Buy Belgian New Beat Vol. 2 (CD) by Various Artists (CD $). Amoeba Music. Ships Free in the U.S. Road Trips Vol. 3, No. 1 is the complete show from December 28, , part of the sparkling run that has already given us the excellent Dick’s Picks: Vol. 5 (from 12/26/79). You’ll recall that these year-end concerts, held at the Oakland Auditorium because Winterland had closed down for good the previous New Year’s Eve, were the first. This compilation contains a mix of both new beat classics and some lesser known tracks. All these tracks were played every week at the legendary clubs like Boccaccio Life, The Prestige, La Gaité, Confetti's, Fifty Five and Skyline between and /5(32). Feb 12, · The artist took to Twitter to say that her recent trio of singles, “If U Think About Me,” “Homework” and “1, 2, 3 Dayz Up,” were the last tracks from what she referred to as “Era 1. This is Volume 1 of a three-volume set that Rhino Records released in The official title of this first volume is "Kurits Blow Presents the History of Rap, Vol. 1: The Genesis." Each of the twelve songs on the CD were recorded and released in the Seventies. As such, these aren't really rap songs in the true sense of the word/5(8). Nov 18, · If you listen to Vol 1 and Vol 2, Baatin don’t talk about the topic at all. It ended up being like we was doing it on purpose, but originally it was not on purpose. Dilla was more upset than. Various Artists Here Come the Girls, Vol. 1: British Girl Singers of the Sixties () [Compilation] Every single volume of this collection is worthy, but, sadly, most of them are hard to find now. Every single volume of this collection is worthy, but, sadly, most of them are hard to find now. Truly Smith. Sep 16, · That spark ultimately evolved into Pass The Mic Vol. 1, which saw some of the biggest R&B stars of the late '70s and the '80s performing their greatest hits . The Freestyle Files: Futuristic Electronics Vol 1 (cd2) The Wire Tapper 1: The Wire Tapper 2: The Wire Tapper 7: The Wire Tapper 8: Tzadik Radio Hour * Hosted by John Zorn: Vänskap We Are Reasonable People: Split Series: % Dynamite! Breakdown: Domino On The Wire.
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